This study explores the commercial, economic, regulatory and political implications of the Nord Stream 2 project. The plans to add another two pipelines to the Nord Stream facility under the Baltic Sea have created waves within the European Union. Whether it fails or succeeds, the project’s political costs will be high, as it touches on sensitive interests in many quarters. Nord Stream is a commercial venture, but its impacts transcend its commercial and energy ramifications, and differ widely among EU states. Without a question, the project represents a challenge for energy diplomacy both internal and external. Its potentially divisive effects on European energy policy and the Energy Union need to be cushioned and contained.
Updated and revised English version of SWP-Studie 21/2016.