With the global demand for energy and greenhouse gas emissions on the rise, heightened transformation pressure is being felt more broadly beyond just national energy systems. Governing energy transition(s) has become a prominent matter of international politics. Traditionally, security of supply had been paramount; socio-economic sustainability of the energy system(s) has gained ground since 2015. Energy policy in the European Union is gradually being placed in a coherent regulatory framework with the implementation of the Third Energy Package, the Energy Union (2015–2019), and with a substantial part of the announced Green Deal (2019). Yet, when it comes to shaping and steering global energy relationships, the institutional landscape remains characterized by great fragmentation. Challenges persist over ensuring security of supply and transforming the energy system, both in EU energy policy and in global energy governance.
Opportunities, Options and Obstacles for a Grand Bargain
Advancing German-Russian Hydrogen Cooperation in a Strained Political Climate
Reflections on Germany and the EU’s Ability to Act