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  • War in the Middle East

    On 7 October 2023, Hamas launched massive attacks on Israel, resulting in the massacre of over 1,200 civilians. Since then, Israel has been waging a war against Hamas that has cost the lives of tens of thousands of Palestinians and caused more than 1.7 million internally displaced persons as well as a disastrous humanitarian situation. The conflict has been escalating regionally and internationally, and the consequences are unforeseeable. What are the backgrounds, scenarios and policy options?