North Korea poses a challenge to the international community in many respects. The North Korean regime violates international norms and treaties, refuses to obey UN Security Council decisions and commits serious human rights violations. With its short- and medium-range missiles, North Korea threatens neighbouring states. North Korean long-range ballistic missiles can probably reach Europe and the United States as well. In addition to conventional weapon systems, Pyongyang very likely also has biological and chemical warfare agents. North Korea thus challenges multilateral regimes concerning the non-proliferation of weapons of mass destruction and is the only country to have declared its withdrawal from the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty. Furthermore, North Korea’s activities in cyberspace present a complex and new challenge.
It is in the interests of Germany and the European Union to sustainably and peacefully deal with the multiple challenges mentioned above. Although not directly involved in the conflict and its regional resolution, they nevertheless influence the actors to the conflict in various ways. The final chapter of the SWP Research Paper Facets of the North Korea Conflict: Actors, Problems and Europe’s Interests deals with the role of Germany and the EU with regard to the North Korean conflict and suggests a number of policies they could pursue.
A chart of the chronology of North Korean missile tests from 1984 to 2017 can be found in the SWP Research Paper Facets of the North Korea Conflict: Actors, Problems and Europe’s Interests.
An overview of North Korea’s cyber activities complements the chapter Cyberspace: Asymmetric Warfare and Cyber-Heists in the SWP Research Paper Facets of the North Korea Conflict: Actors, Problems and Europe’s Interests.
Opportunities and challenges for cooperation with the EU
Implications of the changing status quo on the Korean Peninsula
The Sanctions Regime of the European Union against North Korea
After new provocations, North Korea is back on the agenda of the international community. The US must not engage in a rhetorical tug-of-war. Instead, it must act quickly, says Eric J. Ballbach. Europe can also play a role in this.
South Korea’s Response to Germany’s Indo-Pacific Strategy
What might Pyongyang’s continued missile tests, public statements, and military exercises signal ahead of the 75th anniversary of the Workers’ Party of Korea?