Kirsten Westphal, Aurélie Bros, Tatiana Mitrova

German-Russian Gas Relations

A Special Relationship in Troubled Waters

SWP Research Paper 2017/RP 13, December 2017, 48 Pages

In the context of the security crisis in and over Ukraine, natural gas imports from Russia have become a source of debate in Germany and the European Union. Natural gas relations with Russia are often analyzed either through the prism of commercial and market-based transactions or that of foreign policy and geopolitics. In that respect, this Research Paper takes a holistic approach and tries to analyze and define the dynamics of (geo)politics and economic/commercial logics from the beginning of the early 1970s until today. The paper provides insights into the conducting of German-Russian gas relations at the levels of infrastructure development, trade, business-to-business and commercial ties, as well as political framing. It explains the nature and texture of the gas relations, which have been subject to change over time.

SWP Comment

Christian Wagner
Political Upheaval in Sri Lanka

Internal and External Consequences of the Parliamentary Elections on 5 August 2020


Fabian Burkhardt
Russia’s “Passportisation” of the Donbas

The Mass Naturalisation of Ukrainians Is More Than a Foreign Policy Tool