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The section on cyber-security covers the security of the internet and IT systems (software and hardware), as well as the question of security of critical infrastructure (and related digital technologies such as mobile telephony). Our research into cyber-security investigates the dynamics of cyber-conflict: digital arms races, possibilities of arms control, confidence-building measures, deterrence strategies, and information warfare.

Threat perceptions in this area diverge widely. Some experts believe the risk of an incident, such as a strategic cyber-attack on critical infrastructures, to be massively exaggerated; others foresee dramatic military and civilian threat scenarios. Assessments also diverge between states. Democracies associate the concept of cyber-security with protecting public institutions and private enterprises against strategic cyber-attacks. Many authoritarian states, on the other hand, emphasise information security in the sense of surveillance and control of the public information space.

Because the digitalised world is so closely interconnected, cyber-security can never be addressed in isolation from economic, societal and (foreign) policy questions. For example, new internet security measures have immediate national and international repercussions on fundamental rights such as freedom of expression and the right to privacy.

To further complicate matters, the terminology in this field of security policy is still vague, not least on account of the many actors vying to set the terms of the debate. “Cyber”, “digitalisation” and “internet” tend to be used interchangeably. “Cyber-security strategies” were initially restricted to the classical fields of security; today they are defined much more broadly in Germany and Europe, covering a much broader spectrum than the IT security of the technical infrastructure. The prefix “cyber” originally derives from the Ancient Greek term for “to steer”, and is also used in a broad sense to refer to digital technologies.


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Annegret Bendiek, Matthias C. Kettemann

Revisiting the EU Cybersecurity Strategy: A Call for EU Cyber Diplomacy

SWP Comment 2021/C 16, February 2021, 8 Pages


Annegret Bendiek, Eva Pander Maat

The EU’s Cybersecurity Policy: Building a Resilient Regulatory Framework

in: Gabi Siboni/Limor Ezioni, Cybersecurity and Legal-Regulatory Aspects, Israel: World Scientific Publishing Company, January 2021


Matthias Schulze

Cyber in War: Assessing the Strategic, Tactical, and Operational Utility of Military Cyber Operations

In: T. Jančárková, L. Lindström, M. Signoretti, I. Tolga, G. Visky (eds.), 2020 12th International Conference on Cyber Conflict, Tallinn: NATO CCDCOE Publications, 2020
Annegret Bendiek, Martin Schallbruch

Europe’s Third Way in Cyberspace

What Part Does the New EU Cybersecurity Act Play?

SWP Comment 2019/C 52, December 2019, 8 Pages


Annegret Bendiek, Eva Pander Maat

The EU's Regulatory Approach to Cybersecurity

Working Paper 2019/ No. 02, October 2019, 30 Pages
Matthias Schulze

Cyber Deterrence is Overrated

Analysis of the Deterrent Potential of the New US Cyber Doctrine and Lessons for Germany’s “Active Cyber Defence”

SWP Comment 2019/C 34, August 2019, 8 Pages


Annegret Bendiek, Magnus Römer

Externalizing Europe: the global effects of European data protection

in: Digital Policy, Regulation and Governance, Emerald Publishing Limited, Vol. 21 Issue 1, January 2019, pp.32-43,
Matthias Schulze

Where Does Cyber Defense Stop and Offense Begin?

In: Moving Beyond Cyber Wars: A Transatlantic Dialogue, AICGS Policy Report 68, pp. 24-28, 2018
Annegret Bendiek, Raphael Bossong, Matthias Schulze

The EU’s Revised Cybersecurity Strategy

Half-Hearted Progress on Far-Reaching Challenges

SWP Comment 2017/C 47, November 2017, 7 Pages
Matthias Schulze

Encryption under Threat

As states across the globe weaken cyber-security, Germany should oppose the trend

SWP Comment 2017/C 31, August 2017, 4 Pages
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