Photo by Johannes Plenio on
Photo by Johannes Plenio on

The section on cyber-security covers the security of the internet and IT systems (software and hardware), as well as the question of security of critical infrastructure (and related digital technologies such as mobile telephony). Our research into cyber-security investigates the dynamics of cyber-conflict: digital arms races, possibilities of arms control, confidence-building measures, deterrence strategies, and information warfare.

Threat perceptions in this area diverge widely. Some experts believe the risk of an incident, such as a strategic cyber-attack on critical infrastructures, to be massively exaggerated; others foresee dramatic military and civilian threat scenarios. Assessments also diverge between states. Democracies associate the concept of cyber-security with protecting public institutions and private enterprises against strategic cyber-attacks. Many authoritarian states, on the other hand, emphasise information security in the sense of surveillance and control of the public information space.

Because the digitalised world is so closely interconnected, cyber-security can never be addressed in isolation from economic, societal and (foreign) policy questions. For example, new internet security measures have immediate national and international repercussions on fundamental rights such as freedom of expression and the right to privacy.

To further complicate matters, the terminology in this field of security policy is still vague, not least on account of the many actors vying to set the terms of the debate. “Cyber”, “digitalisation” and “internet” tend to be used interchangeably. “Cyber-security strategies” were initially restricted to the classical fields of security; today they are defined much more broadly in Germany and Europe, covering a much broader spectrum than the IT security of the technical infrastructure. The prefix “cyber” originally derives from the Ancient Greek term for “to steer”, and is also used in a broad sense to refer to digital technologies.


Matthias Schulze

Where Does Cyber Defense Stop and Offense Begin?

In: Moving Beyond Cyber Wars: A Transatlantic Dialogue, AICGS Policy Report 68, pp. 24-28, 2018
Annegret Bendiek, Raphael Bossong, Matthias Schulze

The EU’s Revised Cybersecurity Strategy

Half-Hearted Progress on Far-Reaching Challenges

SWP Comment 2017/C 47, November 2017, 7 Pages
Matthias Schulze

Encryption under Threat

As states across the globe weaken cyber-security, Germany should oppose the trend

SWP Comment 2017/C 31, August 2017, 4 Pages
Annegret Bendiek

The New ‘Europe of Security’

Elements for a European White Paper on Security and Defence

SWP Comment 2017/C 20, June 2017, 8 Pages
Raphael Bossong, Ben Wagner

A Typology of Cybersecurity and Public-Private Partnerships in the Context of the EU

In: Crime, Law and Social Change, April 2017, Volume 67, Issue 3, pp 265–288
Annegret Bendiek, Tobias Metzger

Deterrence theory in the cyber-century

Lessons from a state-of-the-art literature review

Working Paper RD EU/Europe, 2015/ 02, May 2015, 20 Pages
Annegret Bendiek

European Cyber Security Policy

SWP Research Paper 2012/RP 13, October 2012, 27 Pages