European and Global Energy Governance

© Felix Montino, CC BY 2.0,

With the global demand for energy and greenhouse gas emissions on the rise, heightened transformation pressure is being felt more broadly beyond just national energy systems. Governing energy transition(s) has become a prominent matter of international politics. Traditionally, security of supply had been paramount; socio-economic sustainability of the energy system(s) has gained ground since 2015. Energy policy in the European Union is gradually being placed in a coherent regulatory framework with the implementation of the Third Energy Package, the Energy Union (2015–2019), and with a substantial part of the announced Green Deal (2019). Yet, when it comes to shaping and steering global energy relationships, the institutional landscape remains characterized by great fragmentation. Challenges persist over ensuring security of supply and transforming the energy system, both in EU energy policy and in global energy governance.


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Thijs van de Graaf, Indra Overland, Daniel Scholten, Kirsten Westphal

The new oil? The geopolitics and international governance of hydrogen

in: Energy Research & Social Science, Volume 70, December 2020


Steve Pye, Oliver Broad, Chris Bataille, Paul Brockway, Hannah Daly, Rachel Freeman, Ajay Gambhir, Oliver Geden, Fionn Rogan, Sapna Sanghvi, Julia Tomei, Inna Vorushylo, Jim Watson

Modelling net-zero emissions energy systems requires a change in approach

in: Climate Policy, Vol. 20, October 2020


Kirsten Westphal, Maria Pastukhova, Jacopo Maria Pepe

Nord Stream 2: Leverage Against Russia?

The future of the Nord Stream 2 gas pipeline is in the spotlight following the poisoning of Alexei Navalny. Tough political decisions are on the table. Kirsten Westphal, Maria Pastukhova and Jacopo Maria Pepe identify four aspects that need to be considered.

Point of View, 14.09.2020
Caroline Kuzemko, Michael Bradshaw, Gavin Bridge, Andreas Goldthau, Jessica Jewell, Indra Overland, Daniel Scholten, Thijs van de Graaf, Kirsten Westphal

Covid-19 and the Politics of Sustainable Energy Transitions

in: Energy Research and Social Science, July 2020 (online)


Kirsten Westphal

Energy Politics of the European Union

in: Kathleen J. Hancock and Juliann Emmons Allison (eds.), The Oxford Handbook of Energy Politics, Oxford: Oxford University Press, July 2020
Kirsten Westphal

Russia - EU Relations and the Energy Transition

in: Susanne Nies (Hg.): The European Energy Transition: Agenda for the Twenties, Deventer: Claeys and Casteels Law Publishers, 2020, p. 379-395
Daniel Scholten, Morgan Bazilian, Indra Overland, Kirsten Westphal

The geopolitics of renewables: New board, new game

in: Energy Policy, February 2020, 6 pages (online)


Kirsten Westphal, Morgan Bazilian, Michael Bradshaw, Johannes Gabriel, Andreas Goldthau

Four scenarios of the energy transition: Drivers, consequences, and implications for geopolitics

in: WIREs Climate Change, Wiley Periodicals, 2019, 7 pages
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